A Practical Guide to Haemostasis

VTED Risk in Hospitalised Patients:
Risk Prediction Models


VTED is a common multi-factorial disorder and patients admitted to hospital either for an acute medical illness or for a surgical procedure are at significantly increased risk of VTED.

A number of Risk Prediction Models have been developed derived from acutely ill hospital patients and which have then been externally validated.

These algorithms with links to the relevant references are summarised below. For further information and to see how the algorithms were derived see the relevant references.


The CAPRINI score is a clinical prediction rule for assessing the risk of VTE in surgical patients.  It has also been evaluated in a retrospective study at predicting the risk of VTE in hospitalised medical patients.

Click HERE to access the CAPRINI score algorithm

The IMPROVE Scores

The IMPROVE Predictive score was designed to assesses the risk of VTE in hospitalised medical patients. The IMPROVE Predictive score for VTE includes 4 independent risk factors for VTE present at admission.
The IMPROVE Associative score includes 7 variables present either at admission or during hospitalization.
The IMPROVEDD score adds D-dimer as a recognized risk factor to the conventional IMPROVE associative score.

Click HERE to access the IMPROVE Predictive score.

Click HERE to access the IMPROVE Associative score.

Click HERE to access the IMPROVEDD score.

The PADUA Score

The Padua Prediction Score is used to assess the risk of VTE in hospitalised patients. Patients who have an elevated score [≥4] may benefit from pharmacological thromboprophylaxis

Click HERE to access the PADUA score.

The Kucher Score

The Kucher score is a risk assessment algorithm linked to the hospital computer system to identify hospitalised patients at increased risk for venous thromboembolism.

For additional information on the Kucher score and how it was derived and used - see References Kucher et al 2005.