A Practical Guide to Haemostasis

Assessing the Risk of Venous Thromboembolism [VTE] in Hospitalised Medical Patients:
The IMPROVE Predictive, IMPROVE Associative and IMPROVEDD Scores.


The IMPROVE [International Medical Prevention Registry on Venous Thromboembolism] Predictive score was designed to assesses the risk of VTE in hospitalised medical patients. The IMPROVE Predictive score for VTE includes 4 independent risk factors for VTE present at admission.
The IMPROVE Associative score includes 7 variables present either at admission or during hospitalization.
The IMPROVEDD score adds D-dimer as a recognized risk factor to the conventional IMPROVE associative score.

The IMPROVE Predictive Score:

This predicts the VTE risk in medical patients on admission:

Select Criteria:

Previous VTE
3 Points
Treated or untreated within the previous 6 months
1 Point
3 Points
Age >60 yrs
1 Point

[Max score 8]

IMPROVE Predictive Score
VTE Risk on admission
0-1 Low: Observed VTE risk <1%
2-3 Moderate
≥4 High: Observed VTE risk 5.7%

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