A Practical Guide to Haemostasis

Assessing the Risk of Bleeding in Patients with non-valvular Atrial Fibrillation [AF]:
The ABC Bleeding Score


The ABC [Age/Biomarkers/Clinical History] Score is an algorithm for the prediction of major bleeding events in an individual with Atrial Fibrillation. 
The algorithm incorporates two clinical risk factors:
  - Age
  - History of bleeding

and three biomarkers:
  - GDF-15 [Growth Differentiation Factor-15] - a marker of oxidative stress
  - cTn-hs [high-sensitivity cardiac Troponin T] -  a marker of myocardial injury
  - Haemoglobin

See Reference Hijazi et al 2016 for further information on the algorithm and a nomogram for its application and from which the 1-year risk and 3-year risk of major bleeding can be derived.